Sunday, January 13, 2013

Kidney Failure in Dogs-Cause,Symptoms and Treatment of Kidney Failure in Dogs

What is kidney failure in dogs?
Kidney (renal) failure is a common finding in dogs. Kidney failure is defined as the inability of the kidneys to remove waste products from the blood. The bodies of dogs produce toxins all  everyday and the toxins circulate to the kidneys to be mixed in water, filtered out and excreted through urination. The buildup of toxins produces the signs and symptoms of uremic poisoning. Kidney failure may be appear suddenly (acute kidney failure) or come on gradually over months. Ten in every 1,000 dogs that are examined suffer from chronic renal disease. And while dogs of any age may be diagnosed with the kidney disease, it is more typically seen in older dogs.
What Are The Signs Of Kidney Failure In Dogs?
The first sign that there is a problem is when your pet begins to drink water and urinate excessively. At first, it is usual for owners to ignore this. These signs are caused by the failure of the kidneys to concentrate the urine. This results in a large urine output that the dog has no control, then  dehydration and thirst. As kidney function declines, the dog keeps ammonia, nitrogen, acids, and other chemical wastes in  blood and tissues(This is called uremia). Signs of uremia are apathy and depression, loss of appetite and weight, a brownish discoloration to the surface of the tongue, and an ammonia odor in the breath. Dogs at this stage can urinate less than normal. Ulcers can arise in the mouth. With the nephrotic syndrome the dog can develops ascites and edema. Vomiting with diarrhea, and gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. At the end stages of kidney failure, the dog may falls into a coma.
Symptoms of kidney failure in dogs
Symptoms usually occur gradually over an extended petriod of time. In addition, symptoms can vary and not all of those listed below will be seen in every dog:
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+Weight loss
+Increased thirst
+Lack of appetite (anorexia)
+Acute blindness
+Seizures and comas
+Blood in the urine (hematuria)
An increase in the frequency and number of urination
When kidney failure is acute, symptoms come on quickly and are usually severe. The three symptoms need to watch  are:
+Complete loss of appetite
+Marked lethargy
Other symptoms you might notice:
+Straining when urinate and decreased urine production
+Physical weakness and loss of coordination
A dog with renal failure can't produce urine that's concentrated. So, the two main symptoms for renal failure are excessive thirst and frequent urination. Sometimes, symptoms for renal failure aren't usually obvious until most of the kidney function is already lost, so the disease had been active for months or years and already be in the last stages. If you notice any of the symptoms listed above, or if you know or even suspect, call your vet or an animal emergency clinic immediately.
Causes of kidney failure in dogs
Causes of kidney failure can include
+Kidney disease
 +Urinary blockage (obstruction of the urinary tract or of the ureters)
+Certain prescription medications
+Diabetes mellitus
+Genetic (hereditary) factors.
+Rupture of the bladder or urethra
+Poisoning, especially from antifreeze
+Lyme disease
Kidney disease in dogs can be reliably diagnosed through blood and urine tests. The common blood tests are a complete blood count (CBC) and a serum biochemical profile. The veterinarian will also determine the urine’s specific gravity(with specific gravity  is the weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal amount of some other substance taken as a standard). For liquids, the standard is water. Normal canine urine has a specific weight when compared with an equal amount of water. Urine that is abnormally dilute (low specific gravity) is highly suggestive of kidney disease.
Treatment of kidney failure in dogs
In cases of acute kidney disease, the dogs usually has severe signs that occurred suddenly. It can include depression, vomiting or fever, loss of appetite, and changes in the amount of urination. Dogs with kidney failure require periodic monitoring of blood chemistries to detect changes in kidney function that may require medical intervention. Most important step is to restrict salt intake. This wil helps prevent edema, ascites, and hypertension. If the dog is vomiting because of the renal disease, treatment can include giving frequent small meals and medications such as cimetidine or chlorpromazine. The nausea can come and go through the day so small meals offered throughout the day can increase the overall food intake. Dogs suffering from long-term kidney failure will often undergo fluid therapy to assist with depleted body fluid levels (dehydration). Dietary protein is often restricted, because it can further compound the problem. Some other veterinarians believe that as long as the protein is of high biological value, it may help the kidneys retain their function.
Some types of kidney failure are acute and mild, and if the dog is well supported medically, there will be a complete recovery. With chronic renal failure, there is no cure; the disease must be controlled as well as possible for the rest of the dog’s life.
Dialysis describes two therapies that try to duplicate the filtering tasks of the kidneys. Hemodialysis is the second technique. This therapy is only available at some referral centers across the country, because the equipment is expensive and has to be specially designed to work with dogs.
+Kidney Transplant
Another option for dogs with terminal kidney failure is to consider a kidney transplant. Kidney transplants are only done some veterinary referral centers, but have become more common.
Kidney failure problems in dogs are common and serious but with quick treatment and a change in lifestyle, some dogs can continue to lead long, normal and happy lives.

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